Saturday, December 26, 2015

[ Diabetes & Your Feet]

Diabetes & Your Feet: Dos and Don'ts of Foot Care.
WebMD Medical Reference

Reviewed by Michael Dansinger, MD

One of the best things you can do for your feet is to keep your blood sugar levels under control. That can help prevent nerve damage, or peripheral neuropathy. It can cause you to lose feeling in your feet and not know when you get sores or other injuries on them. If you already have nerve damage, good blood-sugar control and careful foot care can prevent further damage. In some cases, it can even reverse nerve damage.

Also, inspect your feet every day for signs of infection such as redness, blisters, or pus. You can do this while you put on or take off your shoes and socks. If you can't easily see all of your foot, use a mirror, or ask a family member to check your feet for you.

Diabetes Foot Care Tips
DO: Wash your feet every day with mild soap and lukewarm water. Test the water with your elbow or a thermometer to make sure it’s not hot (over about 90 F). Gently pat your feet dry after washing them, and dry between your toes.

DON'T: Don't wash your feet in hot water. It could cause burns.

DO: Use lotion or petroleum jelly on your feet to keep the skin smooth. Sprinkle on a non-medicated powder before putting on your socks and shoes to help keep your feet dry.

DON'T: Don't use moisturizer between your toes.

DO: Ask your doctor if it’s safe to trim your own nails. Cut your toenails straight across to help prevent ingrown nails. Then file your toenails so they're not sharp on the corners.

DON'T: Don't use a knife or rip out long nails to trim them.

DO: Always wear shoes when you’re on your feet.

DON'T: Don't walk around barefoot or only in socks.

DO: Make sure your shoes fit well and have plenty of room. It’s best to shop for shoes at the end of the day, when your feet are usually at their largest.

DON'T: Don't wear shoes that feel tight.

DO: Choose shoes that are made of material that breathes, such as leather, canvas, or suede. Look for a cushioned sole to absorb pressure. Pick shoes with laces over loafers, because they provide better support.

DON'T: Don't wear sandals, high heels, flip-flops, or shoes with open or pointed toes.

DO: Replace your shoes when they show signs of wear, such as heels that are worn down on one side or inner lining that is torn. Check the insides of your shoes often for gravel, rough areas, or worn lining.

DON'T: Don't keep wearing shoes that have rough areas or torn pieces inside. Toss them and get a new pair.

DO: See your foot doctor to treat any problems, including corns and calluses.

DON'T: Don't try to treat calluses or corns yourself with over-the-counter products.

DO: Always wear clean, dry socks.

DON'T: Don't wear stretch socks or socks made of nylon.

DO: Choose well-padded socks in a cotton-based material, and change them every day.

DON'T: Don't wear socks that have an inside seam or an elastic band at the top.

DO: Wear socks to bed if you have cold feet.

DON'T: Don't use water bottles, electric blankets, or heating pads on your feet, because they could cause burns.

DO: Wiggle your toes and move your feet around many times a day to keep the blood flowing.

DON'T: Don't stand in one position for a long time or sit with your legs crossed. These can block blood flow to your feet.

DO: Stay active. Aim to move your body at least 30 minutes a day. Ask your doctor what type of activity is best for you.

DON'T: Don't smoke. Smoking can also curb blood flow to your feet.

DO: Tell your doctor about any foot problems right away.

DON'T: Don't take your feet for granted. Instead, set aside some time every day to pamper them and help keep them healthy.

Shoe Tips
Have at least two pairs of shoes so you can switch pairs.
Break in new shoes slowly. Wear them for about an hour a day the first few days.
Ask your doctor if you need special shoes that are fitted to your feet.
Reviewed by Michael Dansinger, MD on February 02, 2015
View Article Source
This tool does not provide medical advice.

Wednesday, December 23, 2015

[ How should be our Drinking Water ]

We the working class and office goers in India carry our drinking water bottles wherever we go and it has become a necessity as it is our health more than wealth that concerns us.
Our government of the people has set standards of pollutants that is safe if present in our drinking water.
What are those pollutants and draft standards set by the government of India by any supplier.
Drinking water shall comply with the requirements given The analysis of Pesticide residues given hereunder and shall be conducted by a recognized laboratory using internationally established test method meeting the residue limits as per standards for:-
1 )Bacteriological requirements.
2 )Virological requirements.
3 )Biological requirements.
Ideally, all sample taken from the distribution system including consumers’ premises, should be free from coliform organisms and the following Bacteriological quality of Drinking water collected in the distribution system, as per standards is therefore recommended when tested in accordance with IS 1622.
If any coliform organisms are found the minimum action required is immediate resampling and examination. Measures should at once be taken to discover the source of contamination and remove the source of the pollution.
Classification of Microscopic Organism. (1)
a) Chlorophyceae.
1) Species of Coelastrum,
2 ) Gomphosphaeria,
3 ) Micractinium,
4 ) Mougeotia,
5 ) Oocystis,
6 ) Euastrum,
7 ) Scenedesmus,
8 ) Actinastrum,
9 ) Gonium,
10 ) Eudorina,
11 ) Pandorina,
12 ) Pediastrum,
13 ) Zygnema,
14 ) Chlamydomonas,
15 ) Careteria,
16 ) Chlorella,
17 ) Chroococcus,
18 ) Spirogyra,
19 ) Tetraedron,
20 ) Chlorogonium,
21 ) Tetraedron,
22 ) Chlorogonium,
23 ) Stigeoclonium.
All the above 23 Microscopic Organism are present in Polluted water and impounded sources.The Effect of the Organisms and their Significance in water is they Impart coloration.

Species of Pandorina,Volvox,Gomphosphaeria,Staurastrum,Hydrodictyon,Nitella.
Polluted Waters.
Effect of the Organisms and Significance.
Produce taste and odour
Species of Rhizoclonium,Cladothrix,Ankistrodesmus,Ulothrix,Micrasterias,Chromulina
Clean Water.
Effect of the Organisms and Significance
Clean Water.
Species of Chlorella,Tribonema,Clostrim,Spirogyra,Palmella.
Polluted waters,impounded sources.
Effect of the Organisms and significance.
Clog filters and create impounded difficulties.
b) Cyanophyceae
Polluted Waters.
Effect of the Organisms and Significance.
Cause water bloom and impart color
Species of Anacystis and Cylindrospermum.

Species of Anabaena,Phormidium,Lyngbya,Arthrospira,Oscillatona.
Polluted waters
Effect of the Organisms and Significance
Impart color

Species of Anabaena,Anacystis,Aphanizomenon.  
Polluted waters,impounded sources.
Effect of the Organisms and Significance.
Produce taste and odour.

Species of Anabaena,,Anacystis,Aphanizomenon.
Polluted waters.
Effect of the Organisms and significance.
Polluted waters,impounded sources.

Species of Anacystis,Anabaena,Coelosphaerium,Cleotrichina,Aphanizomenon.
Polluted Waters.
Effect of the Organisms and significance.
Toxin Producing,

Species of Anacystis,Rivularia,Oscillatoria,Anabena.
Polluted waters
Effect of the Organisms and Significance.
Clog Filters.

Monday, December 14, 2015

[ Helpful Tips about Magnesium Deficiency:]

Up to 75% of Americans don't get enough magnesium in their diet.Even the best multivitamin don't offer 100% of your daily need.

Add to that magnesium-depleting prescription drugs or a health condition that is associated with a magnesium deficiency - and serious health complications can occur.Medications including diuretics and proton pump inhibitors,used for acid reflux or heart burn,all deplete the body of magnesium.

Magnesium is essential health nerve and muscle function,help keep your heart rhythm steady,and help maintain normal blood pressure already with in a normal range*Magnesium also helps in the absorption of vitamin D,Calcium and Potassium* Plus magnesium is essential for normal energy metabolism as it helps convert carbohydrates,protein,and fat in to energy*It even helps support glucose metabolism*.

There is a good chance you may be deficient in magnesium;just one dose of doctor recommended MagOx(R)400 Magnesium per day delivers 120% of the daily value.

Cooper1 Mighty Magnesium,USA wEEKEND 2002.Aug30,Sept 1:4

Sunday, December 13, 2015

[ Helpful Tips for Proper Nutrition.]

When you skip a meal your body goes into starvation mode,thus slowing down your metabolism and causing weight gain and sluggishness.It is helpful to plan your meals the day before so you eat 5-6 small meals daily to help keep your metabolism energized.
Broth based soup can be a low calorie,Yet delicious snack,or if infused with a slice of whole,or if infused with vegetables or paired with vegetables of paired with a slice of whole grain bread,can be a filing small meal.
Fruits and vegetables paired with a slice of whole gain bread,can be a filing small meal.
Fruits and vegetables can be a great alternate soda (even diet) altogether.Drink an 8 oz glass of water before each meal to help fill you up and keep hydrated.
People with diabetes should be taking a multi-vitamin with extra nutrients to help maintain healthy blood sugar levels*,support healthy vision* and promote healthy nerve function*Multi-Betic* Diabetes Multi-Vitamin has essential vitamins,minerals,antioxidants and nutrients that provide these benefits.
* These statements have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration.This product is not intended to diagnose,treat,cure or prevent any disease.

Saturday, December 12, 2015

[ Helpful Tips about Magnesium Deficiency ]

Up to 75% of Americans don't get enough magnesium i their diet. Even the best multi vitamin does't offer 100% of your daily need.
Add to that magnesium - depleting prescription drugs or a health condition that is associated with magnesium deficiency - and serious health complications can occur.Medications including diuretics and proton pump inhibitors,used for acid reflux or heartburn,all deplete the body of magnesium.
Magnesium is essential to support healthy nerve and muscle functions,help keep your heart rhythm steady and help maintain normal blood pressure already within a normal range.*Magnesium also helps in the absorption of Vitamin D,Calcium and Potassium* Plus, magnesium is essential for for normal energy metabolism as it helps convert carbohydrates,protein and fat in to energy* It even helps support glucose metabolism*
There is a good chance you may be deficient in magnesium; just one dose of doctor-recommend MagOx*400 mg Magnesium per day delivers 120% of the daily value.
Corper 1 Mighty Magnesium. USA Weekend 2002 Aug 30 Sept 1:4

Friday, November 20, 2015

[ Obese,diabetic?.Watch your bones.]

New Delhi: Obesity and type 2 diabetes affect bone structure,formation and strength over time,thereby increasing bone fracture risk,says new study.
The researchers also found that exercise can not only prevent weight gain and diabetes but also increase bone strength."Researchers once thought obesity was protective of bone because with more body mass,individuals have more bone mass;more bone mass typically decreases risk of osteoporosis and associated fractures,"said Pam Hinton,Associate Professor at the University of Missouri in the US.
"What we have come to realise is that the bone of people with obesity and type 2 diabetes is not good,quality bone.These individuals have an increased risk of fractures;so that extra body weight is not protective"he said
For the study,the researchers allowed one group of rats to over eat and voluntarily exercise on running wheels.Another group of rats programed to over eat remained sedentary.
The researchers also had a control group of rats that remained sedentary but did not over eat
They studied bones from rats in three groups at different ages to determine how early in the development of obesity and diabetes the bone was affected negatively.
"as the rats continued to grow,all groups increased their bone mass,but the rats that were obese and sedentary did not accumulate as much bone mass relative to their body mass,"Professor Hinton said.
"So decreased bone formation,loss of bone mass and decreased bone strength all were present in the obese,diabetic,sedentary rats.However,the rats that exercised did not lose bone strength.Infact,the rats that ran on the wheels had stronger bones than the normal-weight controls,"he said.
The animals in the exercise group did not develop the same insulin resistance and diabetes
The finding appeared in the journal Metabolism.-IANS

Friday, November 13, 2015

[ Know what you must eat and what you Swallow.1 ]

Vitamin B5

Vitamin B5 is in figs,meat,cheese,peanuts,liver,soy products,broccoli,tomato,peas and whole grains.
Vitamin B5 is Pantothenic Acid needed in your body metabolic reactions.
Any side dish of your diet have this B5 containing items mentioned above.
Vitamin B5 Helps the Body to utilize other Vitamins properly.
Vitamin B5 is also important to maintain a healthy digestive tract and to breakdown carbohydrates,fats,lipids,and various amino acids.

Vitamin B12

Vegetarians must have B12 supplements as no vegetarian diet contains Vitamin B12,Non Vegetarians need no supplement to be taken as all they eat has Vitamin B12

Vitamin B

Folate another Vitamin B taken in conjunction with Vitamin B6 fosters the health of red blood cells and healthy red blood cells are needed to transport oxygen to muscles.
Vitamin B is found in Dark Green Leafy Vegetables,Lettuce,Broccoli,Asparagus,Cauliflower,Lettuce,Beets and Lentils.


Inositol is a word that collectively refers to molecules with a similar structure, a collection of nine stereoisomers. While the term 'inositol' is used commonly with dietary supplements, it usually refers to a specific stereoisomer called myo-inositol. Inositols are Pseudovitamin compounds that are falsely said to belong to the B-complex family,Inositol stops fat accumulating in the Liver and are found in most foods but in highest levels in whole grains and citrus fruits.

Peanut Butter.

Peanut butter is not only a good source of protein and vitamin E, it is rich is magnesium, which is good for your metabolism. Other foods rich in vitamin E include dried almonds, vegetable oils, salad dressing, nuts and seeds, wheat germ oil, and green leafy vegetables.

Consume Vitamin K

This fat-soluble vitamin is important because of its ability to help create a protein that causes blood to clot, but it also helps to boost the metabolism by bonding calcium to bones (which increases bone mass). Less brittle bones reduce the likelihood of bone fractures during exercise or other activity. Though the vitamin is produced from the bacteria that live in your intestine, it can also be found in leafy greens, avocado, and kiwi. Ask your doctor before changing your vitamin K intake if you take the medication warfarin,

Folic Acid.

Folic acid—a vitamin naturally found in leafy vegetables, oranges, wheat germ, and avocados—is critical to cell reproduction because it stabilizes DNA and, with the help of vitamin B12, aids in the production of hemoglobin. Metabolic benefits include regulating the body’s insulin levels so it doesn’t absorb unnecessary fat, and digesting and using proteins for energy with the help of B12 and vitamin C. For women who may become pregnant, researchers recommend a daily intake of 400 micrograms of folic acid per day from fortified foods or dietary supplements.

Vitamin C(Ascorbic Acid)

You probably don’t take vitamin C until you have a cold—but you should. Its antioxidant properties lower the risk of heart disease by barring free radicals from building up on artery walls and causing atherosclerosis. It also improves blood pressure and, at levels of 1,000 to 2,000 milligrams, can help synthesize and thus reduce the effects of the amino acid homocysteine. On top of its heart-healthy benefits, vitamin C assists with the synthesizing of the amino acid carnitine, which in turn helps break down ingested fats. Beware of taking high doses of vitamin C supplements (more than 2,000 mg per day), however: This can cause nausea, diarrhea, kidney stones, and stomach inflammation.

Sweet Potatoes.

Sweet Potatoes Contain Pantothenic Acid Try massed sweet potatoes with Yogurt,Eggs and Milk,Meat,Poultry,Whole Grains,Fish,Cereals,Legemus.


Taken in conjunction with vitamin B6 fosters the health of red blood cells,and healthy red blood cells are needed to transport muscles fueling the metabolic fire.Great sources for folate are dark leafy greens,romaine lettuce,asparagus,broccoli,cauliflower,Beets and lentils

Most of the Vitamin Tablets are sold in shops that are not fit to be Medicinal or Pharmacy shops so you need to be careful in purchasing your Vitamin shops or food items in reputed well maintained clean shops which are trustworthy since anything is sold over the counter in India disregarding required prescriptions from Doctors.Read everything on the bottle or Tablet Strips for Expiry Dates.

Thursday, October 15, 2015

[ Know your Blood. ]

Although all blood is made of the same basic elements, not all blood is alike. In fact, there are eight different common blood types, which are determined by the presence or absence of certain antigens – substances that can trigger an immune response if they are foreign to the body. Since some antigens can trigger a patient's immune system to attack the transfused blood, safe blood transfusions depend on careful blood typing and cross-matching.

There are four major blood groups determined by the presence or absence of two antigens – A and B – on the surface of red blood cells:
  • Group A – has only the A antigen on red cells (and B antibody in the plasma)
  • Group B – has only the B antigen on red cells (and A antibody in the plasma)
  • Group AB – has both A and B antigens on red cells (but neither A nor B antibody in the plasma)
  • Group O – has neither A nor B antigens on red cells (but both A and B antibody are in the plasma)
There are very specific ways in which blood types must be matched for a safe transfusion. See the chart below: 
Blood type chart
Group OO Blood Typediagram linking blood typesO Blood Type
A can donate red blood cells to A's and AB'sA Blood TypeA Blood Type
B can donate red blood cells to B's and AB'sB Blood TypeB Blood Type
Group AB can donate to other AB's but can receive from all othersAB Blood TypeAB Blood Type
In addition to the A and B antigens, there is a third antigen called the Rh factor, which can be either present (+) or absent ( – ). In general, Rh negative blood is given to Rh-negative patients, and Rh positive blood or Rh negative blood may be given to Rh positive patients.
  • The universal red cell donor has Type O negative blood type.
  • The universal plasma donor has Type AB blood type.

O positive is the most common blood type. Not all ethnic groups have the same mix of these blood types. Hispanic people, for example, have a relatively high number of O’s, while Asian people have a relatively high number of B’s. The mix of the different blood types in the U.S. population is:
African American
O +
O -
A +
A -
B +
B -
AB +
AB -
Some patients require a closer blood match than that provided by the ABO positive/negative blood typing. For example, sometimes if the donor and recipient are from the same ethnic background the chance of a reaction can be reduced. That’s why an African-American blood donation may be the best hope for the needs of patients with sickle cell disease, 98 percent of whom are of African-American descent.
How Is My Blood Type Determined?
 It’s inherited. Like eye color, blood type is passed genetically from your parents. Whether your blood group is type A, B, AB or O is based on the blood types of your mother and father.
This chart shows the potential blood types you may inherit. 
* Note: If you have questions about paternity testing or about blood group inheritance, your primary care physician should be able to provide you with an appropriate referral. Testing difficulties can cause exceptions to the above patterns. ABO blood typing is not sufficient to prove or disprove paternity or maternity.
Eligibility Criteria: Alphabetical.

Select the title or plus symbol below to view content. You may also view the Eligibility Criteria by topic.



You must be at least 17 years old to donate to the general blood supply, or 16 years old with parental/guardian consent, if allowed by state law. Learn more about the reasons for a lower age limit. There is no upper age limit for blood donation as long as you are well with no restrictions or limitations to yourYou must be at least 17 years old to donate to the general blood supply, or 16 years old with parental/guardian consent, if allowed by state law. Learn more about the reasons for a lower age limit. There is no upper age limit for blood donation as long as you are well with no restrictions or limitations to your activities. activities.

Allergy, Stuffy Nose, Itchy Eyes, Dry Cough.


A donor with an acute infection should not donate. The reason for antibiotic use must be evaluated to determine if the donor has a bacterial infection that could be transmissible by blood.
Acceptable after finishing oral antibiotics for an infection (bacterial or viral). May have taken last pill on the date of donation. Antibiotic by injection for an infection acceptable 10 days after last injection. Acceptable if you are taking antibiotics to prevent an infection, for example, following dental procedures or for acne. Some conditions which require antibiotics to prevent an infection must still be evaluated at the time of donation by the responsible medical director. If you have a temperature above 99.5 F, you may not donate.



Birth Control

Bleeding Condition.

Blood Pressure, High

Acceptable as long as your blood pressure is below 180 systolic (first number) and below 100 diastolic (second number) at the time of donation. Medications for high blood pressure do not disqualify you from donating.

Blood Pressure, Low

Acceptable as long as you feel well when you come to donate, and your blood pressure is at least 80/50 (systolic/diastolic).

Blood Transfusion


Eligibility depends on the type of cancer and treatment history. If you had leukemia or lymphoma, including Hodgkin’s Disease and other cancers of the blood, you are not eligible to donate. Other types of cancer are acceptable if the cancer has been treated successfully and it has been more than 12 months since treatment was completed and there has been no cancer recurrence in this time. Lower risk in-situ cancers including squamous or basal cell cancers of the skin that have been completely removed do not require a 12 month waiting period.

Precancerous conditions of the uterine cervix do not disqualify you from donation if the abnormality has been treated successfully. You should discuss your particular situation with the health historian at the time of donation.

Unable to Give Blood?
You can help people facing emergencies by making a financial donation to support the Red Cross’s greatest needs. Your gift enables the Red Cross to ensure an ongoing blood supply, provide humanitarian support to families in need and prepare communities by teaching lifesaving skills. Make a financial gift today.

Chronic IllnessesMost chronic illnesses are acceptable as long as you feel well, the condition is under control, and you meet all other eligibility requirements.

Cold, Flu

Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease (CJD)

Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease, Variant (vCJD); "Mad Cow Disease"

Dental Procedures and Oral Surgery


Diabetics who are well controlled on insulin or oral medications are eligible to donate.

Donation Intervals

Wait at least 8 weeks between whole blood (standard) donations.
Wait at least 7 days between platelet (pheresis) donations.
Wait at least 16 weeks between double red cell (automated) donations.

Donor Deferral for Men Who Have Had Sex With Men (MSM)

Heart Disease

Heart Murmur, Heart Valve Disorder

Hemochromatosis (Hereditary)

Hemoglobin, Hematocrit, Blood Count

Hepatitis, Jaundice

Hepatitis Exposure


Hormone Replacement Therapy (HRT)

Hypertension, High Blood Pressure

Immunization, Vaccination



Intravenous Drug Use



Organ/Tissue Transplants

Piercing (ears, body), Electrolysis

Pregnancy, Nursing

Sexually Transmitted Disease

Sickle Cell

Acceptable if you have sickle cell trait. Those with sickle cell disease are not eligible to donate.

Skin Disease, Rash, Acne


It is not necessarily surgery but the underlying condition that precipitated the surgery that requires evaluation before donation.  Evaluation is on a case by case basis.  You should discuss your particular situation with the health historian at the time of donation.


Wait 12 months after being treated for syphilis or gonorrhea.


Travel Outside of U.S., Immigration


Venereal Diseases


Below is additional reference material if you did not find what you were looking for above.
Last updated: 2/25/2013
By: Yvette Marie Miller, MD., Executive Medical Officer
By: Kathleen M. Grima, MD., Executive Medical Officer
By: M.A.P., RN, BSN

Note to users: Eligibility guidelines may have changed since this information was last updated. For current information, please contact the American Red Cross blood region nearest you.
In-Depth Discussion of Age and Blood Donation
Those younger than age 17 are almost always legal minors (not yet of the age of majority) who cannot give consent by themselves to donate blood. (Each state determines its own age of majority, which can be different for different activities.)

Persons under the age of 17 may, however, donate blood for their own use, in advance of scheduled surgery or in situations where their blood has special medical value for a particular patient such as a family member.
In-Depth Discussion of Variant Creutzfeld-Jacob Disease and Blood Donation
In some parts of the world, cattle can get an infectious, fatal brain disease called Mad Cow Disease. In these same locations, humans have started to get a new disease called variant Creutzfeld-Jacob Disease (vCJD) which is also a fatal brain disease. Scientists believe that vCJD is Mad Cow Disease that has somehow transferred to humans, possibly through the food chain.

There is now evidence from a small number of case reports involving patients and laboratory animal studies that vCJD can be transmitted through transfusion. There is no test for vCJD in humans that could be used to screen blood donors and to protect the blood supply. This means that blood programs must take special precautions to keep vCJD out of the blood supply by avoiding collections from those who have been where this disease is found.

At this time, the American Red Cross donor eligibility rules related to vCJD are as follows:

You are not eligible to donate if:

From January 1, 1980, through December 31, 1996, you spent (visited or lived) a cumulative time of 3 months or more, in the United Kingdom (UK), or
From January 1, 1980, to present, you had a blood transfusion in any country(ies) in the (UK) or France. The UK includes any of the countries listed below.
  • Channel Islands
  • England
  • Falkland Islands
  • Gibraltar
  • Isle of Man
  • Northern Ireland
  • Scotland
  • Wales
You were a member of the of the U.S. military, a civilian military employee, or a dependent of a member of the U.S. military who spent a total time of 6 months on or associated with a military base in any of the following areas during the specified time frames
  • From 1980 through 1990 - Belgium, the Netherlands (Holland), or Germany
  • From 1980 through 1996 - Spain, Portugal, Turkey, Italy or Greece.
You spent (visited or lived) a cumulative time of 5 years or more from January 1, 1980, to present, in any combination of country(ies) in Europe, including
  • in the UK from 1980 through 1996 as listed above
  • on or associated with military bases as described above, and
  • in other countries in Europe as listed below:
    • Albania
    • Austria
    • Belgium
    • Bosnia/Herzegovina
    • Bulgaria
    • Croatia
    • Czech Republic
    • Denmark
    • Finland
    • France
    • Germany
    • Greece
    • Hungary
    • Ireland (Republic of)
    • Italy
    • Kosovo (Federal Republic of Yugoslavia)
    • Liechtenstein
    • Luxembourg
    • Macedonia
    • Montenegro (Federal Republic of Yugoslavia)
    • Netherlands (Holland)
    • Norway
    • Poland
    • Portugal
    • Romania
    • Serbia (Federal Republic of Yugoslavia)
    • Slovak Republic (Slovakia)
    • Slovenia
    • Spain
    • Sweden
    • Switzerland
    • Turkey
    • Yugoslavia (Federal Republic includes Kosovo, Montenegro, and Serbia)
In-Depth Discussion of HIV Group O and Blood Donation
Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) is the virus that causes AIDS. The virus can be transmitted through blood transfusion, so all donor programs are required to question donors about possible HIV exposure, and to test donated blood for this virus.

There is a rare form of HIV called Type O that is found in western Africa. The tests for HIV detect the Type O strain.

In-Depth Discussion of Creutzfeld-Jacob Disease (CJD) and Blood Donation
CJD is a rare, progressive and fatal brain disorder that occurs in all parts of the world and has been known about for decades. CJD is different from variant CJD, the new disease in humans thought to be associated with Mad Cow disease in the United Kingdom and elsewhere.

CJD appears to be an infectious disease. It has been transmitted from infected humans to patients through the transplantation of the covering of the brain (dura mater), use of contaminated brain electrodes, and injection of growth hormones derived from human pituitary glands. Rarely, CJD is associated with an hereditary predisposition; that is, it occurs in biologic or “blood” relatives ( persons in the same genetic family).

There is no evidence that CJD can be transmitted from donors to patients through blood transfusions. However, nobody knows for certain that this cannot happen. There is no test for CJD that could be used to screen blood donors. This means that blood programs must take special precautions to keep CJD out of the blood supply by not taking blood donations from those who might have acquired this infection.

You are considered to be at higher risk of carrying CJD if you
  • Received a dura mater (brain covering) graft;
  • Received human pituitary-derived growth hormone injections; or
  • Have a biologic relative who has been diagnosed with CJD.
  • If any of these descriptions apply to you, you should not donate blood until more is known about CJD and the risk to the blood supply.
In-Depth Discussion of Hepatitis and Blood Donation
"Hepatitis" means inflammation of the liver. Hepatitis can be caused by many things including gallstones, medications, drinking alcohol, obesity and liver infections.

Hepatitis caused by Hepatitis B virus and Hepatitis C virus can be easily transmitted from donors to patients through transfusion. It is possible for a donor to carry a hepatitis virus even though he has never been sick with an inflamed liver, and he feels entirely well at the time of donation.

Hepatitis B and hepatitis C are transmitted between people through sexual contact and blood-to-blood contact, such as occurs when needles are shared during IV drug use. Hepatitis viruses can also be transmitted from mothers to their unborn babies. However, many people who have hepatitis virus infection cannot determine how they became infected. There is a vaccine for the hepatitis B virus.

All blood donations are tested for hepatitis B and hepatitis C with several different tests. But because these tests are not perfect, it is still important for people who may be infected with hepatitis viruses to not donate blood. In some cases, all that is required is a waiting period after some particular event, such as an exposure to a patient with hepatitis, to be sure the person was not infected. In other cases, the likelihood of hepatitis is high enough that the person is not eligible to donate regardless of how much time has gone by.
In-Depth Discussion of Malaria and Blood Donation
Malaria is a blood infection caused by a parasite that can be transmitted from a donor to a patient through transfusion. It is possible to have a new infection with malaria but have no symptoms, even though the parasite is present in your blood. It is also possible to feel well, but have a very mild case of malaria, especially if you have lived for extended periods of time in parts of the world where malaria is found.

The Centers for Disease Control and Protection keep track of the locations with malaria for international travelers from the United States, and this information is available on their web site. You can see if malaria is found in the location you traveled to or lived in by searching for it on the CDC Web-based Malaria Risk

Map Application at the following link

Blood donations are not tested for malaria. Therefore, it is important that people who may have malaria or been exposed to malaria because of living in, or traveling to, a country where malaria is present not be allowed to donate blood until enough time has passed to be certain that they are not infected with malaria. This is done by having a waiting period for those who lived in, move from, or traveled to, the locations with malaria.

If you have traveled outside of the United States, your travel destinations will be reviewed to see if you were in a malaria-risk area. It would be most helpful if you came prepared to report the country and city or destinations to which you traveled, as well as the travel dates.