Thursday, October 15, 2015

[ Know your Blood. ]

Although all blood is made of the same basic elements, not all blood is alike. In fact, there are eight different common blood types, which are determined by the presence or absence of certain antigens – substances that can trigger an immune response if they are foreign to the body. Since some antigens can trigger a patient's immune system to attack the transfused blood, safe blood transfusions depend on careful blood typing and cross-matching.

There are four major blood groups determined by the presence or absence of two antigens – A and B – on the surface of red blood cells:
  • Group A – has only the A antigen on red cells (and B antibody in the plasma)
  • Group B – has only the B antigen on red cells (and A antibody in the plasma)
  • Group AB – has both A and B antigens on red cells (but neither A nor B antibody in the plasma)
  • Group O – has neither A nor B antigens on red cells (but both A and B antibody are in the plasma)
There are very specific ways in which blood types must be matched for a safe transfusion. See the chart below: 
Blood type chart
Group OO Blood Typediagram linking blood typesO Blood Type
A can donate red blood cells to A's and AB'sA Blood TypeA Blood Type
B can donate red blood cells to B's and AB'sB Blood TypeB Blood Type
Group AB can donate to other AB's but can receive from all othersAB Blood TypeAB Blood Type
In addition to the A and B antigens, there is a third antigen called the Rh factor, which can be either present (+) or absent ( – ). In general, Rh negative blood is given to Rh-negative patients, and Rh positive blood or Rh negative blood may be given to Rh positive patients.
  • The universal red cell donor has Type O negative blood type.
  • The universal plasma donor has Type AB blood type.

O positive is the most common blood type. Not all ethnic groups have the same mix of these blood types. Hispanic people, for example, have a relatively high number of O’s, while Asian people have a relatively high number of B’s. The mix of the different blood types in the U.S. population is:
African American
O +
O -
A +
A -
B +
B -
AB +
AB -
Some patients require a closer blood match than that provided by the ABO positive/negative blood typing. For example, sometimes if the donor and recipient are from the same ethnic background the chance of a reaction can be reduced. That’s why an African-American blood donation may be the best hope for the needs of patients with sickle cell disease, 98 percent of whom are of African-American descent.
How Is My Blood Type Determined?
 It’s inherited. Like eye color, blood type is passed genetically from your parents. Whether your blood group is type A, B, AB or O is based on the blood types of your mother and father.
This chart shows the potential blood types you may inherit. 
* Note: If you have questions about paternity testing or about blood group inheritance, your primary care physician should be able to provide you with an appropriate referral. Testing difficulties can cause exceptions to the above patterns. ABO blood typing is not sufficient to prove or disprove paternity or maternity.
Eligibility Criteria: Alphabetical.

Select the title or plus symbol below to view content. You may also view the Eligibility Criteria by topic.



You must be at least 17 years old to donate to the general blood supply, or 16 years old with parental/guardian consent, if allowed by state law. Learn more about the reasons for a lower age limit. There is no upper age limit for blood donation as long as you are well with no restrictions or limitations to yourYou must be at least 17 years old to donate to the general blood supply, or 16 years old with parental/guardian consent, if allowed by state law. Learn more about the reasons for a lower age limit. There is no upper age limit for blood donation as long as you are well with no restrictions or limitations to your activities. activities.

Allergy, Stuffy Nose, Itchy Eyes, Dry Cough.


A donor with an acute infection should not donate. The reason for antibiotic use must be evaluated to determine if the donor has a bacterial infection that could be transmissible by blood.
Acceptable after finishing oral antibiotics for an infection (bacterial or viral). May have taken last pill on the date of donation. Antibiotic by injection for an infection acceptable 10 days after last injection. Acceptable if you are taking antibiotics to prevent an infection, for example, following dental procedures or for acne. Some conditions which require antibiotics to prevent an infection must still be evaluated at the time of donation by the responsible medical director. If you have a temperature above 99.5 F, you may not donate.



Birth Control

Bleeding Condition.

Blood Pressure, High

Acceptable as long as your blood pressure is below 180 systolic (first number) and below 100 diastolic (second number) at the time of donation. Medications for high blood pressure do not disqualify you from donating.

Blood Pressure, Low

Acceptable as long as you feel well when you come to donate, and your blood pressure is at least 80/50 (systolic/diastolic).

Blood Transfusion


Eligibility depends on the type of cancer and treatment history. If you had leukemia or lymphoma, including Hodgkin’s Disease and other cancers of the blood, you are not eligible to donate. Other types of cancer are acceptable if the cancer has been treated successfully and it has been more than 12 months since treatment was completed and there has been no cancer recurrence in this time. Lower risk in-situ cancers including squamous or basal cell cancers of the skin that have been completely removed do not require a 12 month waiting period.

Precancerous conditions of the uterine cervix do not disqualify you from donation if the abnormality has been treated successfully. You should discuss your particular situation with the health historian at the time of donation.

Unable to Give Blood?
You can help people facing emergencies by making a financial donation to support the Red Cross’s greatest needs. Your gift enables the Red Cross to ensure an ongoing blood supply, provide humanitarian support to families in need and prepare communities by teaching lifesaving skills. Make a financial gift today.

Chronic IllnessesMost chronic illnesses are acceptable as long as you feel well, the condition is under control, and you meet all other eligibility requirements.

Cold, Flu

Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease (CJD)

Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease, Variant (vCJD); "Mad Cow Disease"

Dental Procedures and Oral Surgery


Diabetics who are well controlled on insulin or oral medications are eligible to donate.

Donation Intervals

Wait at least 8 weeks between whole blood (standard) donations.
Wait at least 7 days between platelet (pheresis) donations.
Wait at least 16 weeks between double red cell (automated) donations.

Donor Deferral for Men Who Have Had Sex With Men (MSM)

Heart Disease

Heart Murmur, Heart Valve Disorder

Hemochromatosis (Hereditary)

Hemoglobin, Hematocrit, Blood Count

Hepatitis, Jaundice

Hepatitis Exposure


Hormone Replacement Therapy (HRT)

Hypertension, High Blood Pressure

Immunization, Vaccination



Intravenous Drug Use



Organ/Tissue Transplants

Piercing (ears, body), Electrolysis

Pregnancy, Nursing

Sexually Transmitted Disease

Sickle Cell

Acceptable if you have sickle cell trait. Those with sickle cell disease are not eligible to donate.

Skin Disease, Rash, Acne


It is not necessarily surgery but the underlying condition that precipitated the surgery that requires evaluation before donation.  Evaluation is on a case by case basis.  You should discuss your particular situation with the health historian at the time of donation.


Wait 12 months after being treated for syphilis or gonorrhea.


Travel Outside of U.S., Immigration


Venereal Diseases


Below is additional reference material if you did not find what you were looking for above.
Last updated: 2/25/2013
By: Yvette Marie Miller, MD., Executive Medical Officer
By: Kathleen M. Grima, MD., Executive Medical Officer
By: M.A.P., RN, BSN

Note to users: Eligibility guidelines may have changed since this information was last updated. For current information, please contact the American Red Cross blood region nearest you.
In-Depth Discussion of Age and Blood Donation
Those younger than age 17 are almost always legal minors (not yet of the age of majority) who cannot give consent by themselves to donate blood. (Each state determines its own age of majority, which can be different for different activities.)

Persons under the age of 17 may, however, donate blood for their own use, in advance of scheduled surgery or in situations where their blood has special medical value for a particular patient such as a family member.
In-Depth Discussion of Variant Creutzfeld-Jacob Disease and Blood Donation
In some parts of the world, cattle can get an infectious, fatal brain disease called Mad Cow Disease. In these same locations, humans have started to get a new disease called variant Creutzfeld-Jacob Disease (vCJD) which is also a fatal brain disease. Scientists believe that vCJD is Mad Cow Disease that has somehow transferred to humans, possibly through the food chain.

There is now evidence from a small number of case reports involving patients and laboratory animal studies that vCJD can be transmitted through transfusion. There is no test for vCJD in humans that could be used to screen blood donors and to protect the blood supply. This means that blood programs must take special precautions to keep vCJD out of the blood supply by avoiding collections from those who have been where this disease is found.

At this time, the American Red Cross donor eligibility rules related to vCJD are as follows:

You are not eligible to donate if:

From January 1, 1980, through December 31, 1996, you spent (visited or lived) a cumulative time of 3 months or more, in the United Kingdom (UK), or
From January 1, 1980, to present, you had a blood transfusion in any country(ies) in the (UK) or France. The UK includes any of the countries listed below.
  • Channel Islands
  • England
  • Falkland Islands
  • Gibraltar
  • Isle of Man
  • Northern Ireland
  • Scotland
  • Wales
You were a member of the of the U.S. military, a civilian military employee, or a dependent of a member of the U.S. military who spent a total time of 6 months on or associated with a military base in any of the following areas during the specified time frames
  • From 1980 through 1990 - Belgium, the Netherlands (Holland), or Germany
  • From 1980 through 1996 - Spain, Portugal, Turkey, Italy or Greece.
You spent (visited or lived) a cumulative time of 5 years or more from January 1, 1980, to present, in any combination of country(ies) in Europe, including
  • in the UK from 1980 through 1996 as listed above
  • on or associated with military bases as described above, and
  • in other countries in Europe as listed below:
    • Albania
    • Austria
    • Belgium
    • Bosnia/Herzegovina
    • Bulgaria
    • Croatia
    • Czech Republic
    • Denmark
    • Finland
    • France
    • Germany
    • Greece
    • Hungary
    • Ireland (Republic of)
    • Italy
    • Kosovo (Federal Republic of Yugoslavia)
    • Liechtenstein
    • Luxembourg
    • Macedonia
    • Montenegro (Federal Republic of Yugoslavia)
    • Netherlands (Holland)
    • Norway
    • Poland
    • Portugal
    • Romania
    • Serbia (Federal Republic of Yugoslavia)
    • Slovak Republic (Slovakia)
    • Slovenia
    • Spain
    • Sweden
    • Switzerland
    • Turkey
    • Yugoslavia (Federal Republic includes Kosovo, Montenegro, and Serbia)
In-Depth Discussion of HIV Group O and Blood Donation
Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) is the virus that causes AIDS. The virus can be transmitted through blood transfusion, so all donor programs are required to question donors about possible HIV exposure, and to test donated blood for this virus.

There is a rare form of HIV called Type O that is found in western Africa. The tests for HIV detect the Type O strain.

In-Depth Discussion of Creutzfeld-Jacob Disease (CJD) and Blood Donation
CJD is a rare, progressive and fatal brain disorder that occurs in all parts of the world and has been known about for decades. CJD is different from variant CJD, the new disease in humans thought to be associated with Mad Cow disease in the United Kingdom and elsewhere.

CJD appears to be an infectious disease. It has been transmitted from infected humans to patients through the transplantation of the covering of the brain (dura mater), use of contaminated brain electrodes, and injection of growth hormones derived from human pituitary glands. Rarely, CJD is associated with an hereditary predisposition; that is, it occurs in biologic or “blood” relatives ( persons in the same genetic family).

There is no evidence that CJD can be transmitted from donors to patients through blood transfusions. However, nobody knows for certain that this cannot happen. There is no test for CJD that could be used to screen blood donors. This means that blood programs must take special precautions to keep CJD out of the blood supply by not taking blood donations from those who might have acquired this infection.

You are considered to be at higher risk of carrying CJD if you
  • Received a dura mater (brain covering) graft;
  • Received human pituitary-derived growth hormone injections; or
  • Have a biologic relative who has been diagnosed with CJD.
  • If any of these descriptions apply to you, you should not donate blood until more is known about CJD and the risk to the blood supply.
In-Depth Discussion of Hepatitis and Blood Donation
"Hepatitis" means inflammation of the liver. Hepatitis can be caused by many things including gallstones, medications, drinking alcohol, obesity and liver infections.

Hepatitis caused by Hepatitis B virus and Hepatitis C virus can be easily transmitted from donors to patients through transfusion. It is possible for a donor to carry a hepatitis virus even though he has never been sick with an inflamed liver, and he feels entirely well at the time of donation.

Hepatitis B and hepatitis C are transmitted between people through sexual contact and blood-to-blood contact, such as occurs when needles are shared during IV drug use. Hepatitis viruses can also be transmitted from mothers to their unborn babies. However, many people who have hepatitis virus infection cannot determine how they became infected. There is a vaccine for the hepatitis B virus.

All blood donations are tested for hepatitis B and hepatitis C with several different tests. But because these tests are not perfect, it is still important for people who may be infected with hepatitis viruses to not donate blood. In some cases, all that is required is a waiting period after some particular event, such as an exposure to a patient with hepatitis, to be sure the person was not infected. In other cases, the likelihood of hepatitis is high enough that the person is not eligible to donate regardless of how much time has gone by.
In-Depth Discussion of Malaria and Blood Donation
Malaria is a blood infection caused by a parasite that can be transmitted from a donor to a patient through transfusion. It is possible to have a new infection with malaria but have no symptoms, even though the parasite is present in your blood. It is also possible to feel well, but have a very mild case of malaria, especially if you have lived for extended periods of time in parts of the world where malaria is found.

The Centers for Disease Control and Protection keep track of the locations with malaria for international travelers from the United States, and this information is available on their web site. You can see if malaria is found in the location you traveled to or lived in by searching for it on the CDC Web-based Malaria Risk

Map Application at the following link

Blood donations are not tested for malaria. Therefore, it is important that people who may have malaria or been exposed to malaria because of living in, or traveling to, a country where malaria is present not be allowed to donate blood until enough time has passed to be certain that they are not infected with malaria. This is done by having a waiting period for those who lived in, move from, or traveled to, the locations with malaria.

If you have traveled outside of the United States, your travel destinations will be reviewed to see if you were in a malaria-risk area. It would be most helpful if you came prepared to report the country and city or destinations to which you traveled, as well as the travel dates.


Wednesday, October 14, 2015

[Blood parameters associated with risk of thrombosis or its complications.]


Adopting an anti-inflammatory lifestyle (i.e. exercise, diet, stress reduction, not smoking, etc.) is the best approach to decrease your risk of developing a potentially life-threatening blood clot.
If you want to take the extra steps to further reduce this risk, there are numerous foods and supplements that may help. Checking certain laboratory values and your blood pressure may be important for those who are already at risk of developing a blood clot.
Before making any major changes to your food or supplement routine, check with your physician on whether they agree this is safe and appropriate for you. 
- See more at:

Sunday, October 11, 2015

[Sounds good. Maybe worth trying.]

"How strange that the nature of life is change, yet the nature of human is to resist change. And how ironic that the difficult times we fear might ruin us are the very ones that break us open and help us blossom into who we were meant to be."



Put an Ice Cube at This Point on Your Head and Witness the Miracle.

You have probably never thought that a daily use of ice cubes can help your body heal and​ recharge and make you a bit younger and energetic. It can happen if you put an ice cube at the point where your head and neck are connected.

This technique is closely related to Chinese acupuncture and according to it, the point where you have to place the ice cube is called Feng Fu, which translates to “wind mansion”.

Just hold the cube for 20 minutes on the Feng Fu point. Naturally, at first you will begin to feel freezing, but after thirty or forty seconds you will feel warmth.
By doing this every day you will begin to feel euphoria. This is because the ice cube will cause for endorphin to be released in your blood. But, there are many more benefits from using this technique.

For example:
• Sleep improvement
• Better digestion
• No more frequent colds
• Less joint pain, toothaches and headaches
• Breathing improvement and better cardiovascular system
• No more degenerative spine changes and management of neurological disorders
• Help with sexually transmitted and gastrointestinal infections
• No thyroid gland disorders
• No hypotension, hypertension and arthritis
• No asthma
• Help with malnutrition or obesity
• No Cellulite
• Better menstruation and help with impotence, infertility, endocrine glands and frigidity
• No insomnia, chronic fatigue, depression, stress and
management of psycho-emotional disorders
This method helps the body to return its balance, so technically it is not a cure, but a rejuvenation method. ​Y​our body gets higher on life.

However, the method may show contraindications in cases of schizophrenia, epilepsy, pacemakers, and during pregnancy.

Thursday, October 8, 2015


Persistent symptoms should not be ignored because the condition can worsen if not treated well in time


is a condition that causes swallowing difficulty.This inability to swallow foods or liquids with ease affects people for many reasons.Dr.Tejeswi Nataraj,consultant internal medicine,BGS Global Hospital,says,"The difficulty to swallow may be temporary and go away on its own.However in old age,this condition can worsen if not diagnosed and treated,people who are addicted to chewing tobacco may get throat cancer.Those who may suffer stroke may also suffer the constriction of muscle near the neck.Immune system issues also cause swelling ( or inflammation )and laxity of the throat muscles.This condition may also be present in children due to birth defects"

The condition may also be caused by dehydration or infection of the throat and chest

Dr.Lorance Peter,consultant and HOD gastroenterologist,Manipal Hospital,says,"The problem may go on its own.However if the symptoms persist,a medical consultation is a must.If the swallowing problems are persistent,they can result in malnutrition and dehydration,especially in the very young and elderly and cause recurrent respiratory infections and aspiration pneumonia.All of these complications are serious and life threating and must be treated".

Friday, October 2, 2015


* Weakness
* Tiredness
*Tingling Numbness
*Bleeding Gums
*Felling Low
*Hair Loss
*Frequent Skin Problems



Studies show that Vitamin & Minerals deficiency could be the reason behind other life-altering diseases.
Vitamin D & Calcium
83% Females & 85% Males in INDIA are reported to have Vitamin D deficiency*.Low Vitamin D usually also indicates low calcium. Both are crucial for protecting bones

*Metropolis Study published in Times of India 3 Dec 2014
Vitamin B 12 & B 6
1 in 5 people are found with Vitamin B 12 deficiency & about 40% of the Indian population are found with Vitamin B9 deficiency**These Vitamins play an important role in keeping the body's nerve and blood cells healthy.Low Levels of Vitamin B 12 & other Vitamins affect mood and other brain functions.
** Metropolis Study published in Hindustan Times 5 Dec 2014 titled "Low levels of Vitamin B12 could push you in to depression ,cause fatigue.
Iron Studies
1 in 4 people are affected by Anaemia in India***.Iron deficiency is one of the most common forms of anaemia that affects all age groups. In women,anaemia is more worrying and can cause maternal deaths and an increased risk of premature delivery and low birth weights.
***Study by Biological Forum - An International Journal 6(1)27-32(2014)
It's time you get your Vitamins & Minerals Level checked.

Thursday, October 1, 2015

Health & Personality.

21 Rules For a Good Old Age.
Some of us have reached our golden years, and some of us have not. But these suggestions should be read by everyone. They have been collected from many a senior, each with his or her own piece of advice. Some you know, some may surprise you, and some will remind you of what's important. So read well, share with your loved ones, and have a great day and a great life!
1. It's time to use the money you saved up. Use it and enjoy it. Don't just keep it for those who may have no notion of the sacrifices you made to get it. Remember there is nothing more dangerous than a son or daughter-in-law with big ideas for your hard earned capital. Warning: This is also a bad time for an investment, even if it seems wonderful or fool-proof. They only bring problems and worries and this is a time for you to enjoy some peace and quiet.
2. Stop worrying about the financial situation of your children and grandchildren, and don't feel bad spending your money on yourself. You've taken care of them for many years, and you've taught them what you could. You gave them an education, food, shelter and support. The responsibility is now theirs to earn their own money.
3. Keep a healthy life, without great physical effort. Do moderate exercise (like walking every day), eat well and get your sleep. It's easy to become sick, and it gets harder to remain healthy. That is why you need to keep yourself in good shape and be aware of your medical and physical needs. Keep in touch with your doctor, get tested even when you're feeling well. Stay informed.
4. Always buy the best, most beautiful items for your significant other. The key goal is to enjoy your money with your partner. One day one of you will miss the other, and the money will not provide any comfort then, enjoy it together.
5. Don't stress over the little things. You've already overcome so much in your life. You have good memories and bad ones, but the important thing is the present. Don't let the past drag you down and don't let the future frighten you. Feel good in the now. Small issues will soon be forgotten.
6. Regardless of age, always keep love alive. Love your partner, love life, love your family, love your neighbor and remember: "A man is not old as long as he has intelligence and affection."
7. Be proud, both inside and out. Don't stop going to your hair salon or barber, do your nails, go to the dermatologist and the dentist, keep your perfumes and creams well stocked. When you are well-maintained on the outside, it seeps in, making you feel proud and strong.
8. Don't lose sight of fashion trends for your age, but keep your own sense of style. There's nothing worse than an older person trying to wear the current fashion among youngsters. You've developed your own sense of what looks good on you - keep it and be proud of it. It's part of who you are.
9. ALWAYS stay up-to-date. Read newspapers, watch the news. Go online and read what people are saying. Make sure you have an active email account and try to use some of those social networks. You'll be surprised which old friends you'll meet. Keeping in touch with what is going on and with the people you know is important at any age.
10. Respect the younger generation and their opinions. They may not have the same ideals as you, but they are the future, and will take the world in their direction. Give advice, not criticism, and try to remind them of yesterday's wisdom that still applies today.
11. Never use the phrase: "In my time". Your time is now. As long as you're alive, you are part of this time. You may have been younger, but you are still you now, having fun and enjoying life.
12. Some people embrace their golden years, while others become bitter and surly. Life is too short to waste your days on the latter. Spend your time with positive, cheerful people, it'll rub off on you and your days will seem that much better. Spending your time with bitter people will make you older and harder to be around.
13. Do not surrender to the temptation of living with your children or grandchildren (if you have a financial choice, that is). Sure, being surrounded by family sounds great, but we all need our privacy. They need theirs and you need yours. If you've lost your partner (our deepest condolences), then find a person to move in with you and help out. Even then, do so only if you feel you really need the help or do not want to live alone.
14. Don't abandon your hobbies. If you don't have any, make new ones. You can travel, hike, cook, read, dance. You can adopt a cat or a dog, grow a garden, play cards, checkers, chess, dominoes, golf. You can paint, volunteer at an NGO or just collect certain items. Find something you like and spend some real time having fun with it.
15. Even if you don't feel like it, try to accept invitations. Baptisms, graduations, birthdays, weddings, conferences. Try to go. Get out of the house, meet people you haven't seen in a while, experience something new (or something old). But don't get upset when you're not invited. Some events are limited by resources, and not everyone can be hosted. The important thing is to leave the house from time to time. Go to museums, go walk through a field. Get out there.
16. Be a conversationalist. Talk less and listen more. Some people go on and on about the past, not caring if their listeners are really interested. That's a great way of reducing their desire to speak with you. Listen first and answer questions, but don't go off into long stories unless asked to. Speak in courteous tones and try not to complain or criticize too much unless you really need to. Try to accept situations as they are. Everyone is going through the same things, and people have a low tolerance for hearing complaints. Always find some good things to say as well.
17. Pain and discomfort go hand in hand with getting older. Try not to dwell on them but accept them as a part of the cycle of life we're all going through. Try to minimize them in your mind. They are not who you are, they are something that life added to you. If they become your entire focus, you lose sight of the person you used to be.
18. If you've been offended by someone - forgive them. If you've offended someone - apologize. Don't drag around resentment with you. It only serves to make you sad and bitter. It doesn't matter who was right. Someone once said: "Holding a grudge is like taking poison and expecting the other person to die." Don't take that poison. Forgive, forget and move on with your life.
19. If you have a strong belief, savor it. But don't waste your time trying to convince others. They will make their own choices no matter what you tell them, and it will only bring you frustration. Live your faith and set an example. Live true to your beliefs and let that memory sway them.
20. Laugh. Laugh A LOT. Laugh at everything. Remember, you are one of the lucky ones. You managed to have a life, a long one. Many never get to this age, never get to experience a full life. But you did. So what's not to laugh about? Find the humor in your situation.
21. Take no notice of what others say about you and even less notice of what they might be thinking. They'll do it anyway, and you should have pride in yourself and what you've achieved. Let them talk and don't worry. They have no idea about your history, your memories and the life you've lived so far. There's still much to be written, so get busy writing and don't waste time thinking about what others might think. Now is the time to be at rest, at peace and as happy as you can be!
AND REMEMBER: "Life is too short to drink bad wine."